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Contour and Hill Shading - SS2 Geography Lesson Note

Contours are lines on a map that connect points of the same elevation. They help depict the shape and steepness of the terrain. Hill shading, on the other hand, adds shadows to make maps look more 3D, enhancing the perception of hills and valleys.



Relief Colouring:

Relief coloring involves using colors to represent different elevations on a map. For example, green might indicate lower areas (like valleys), while brown or gray might represent higher elevations (like mountains). It helps you visualize the landscape more vividly.


Spot Heights:

Spot heights are specific points on a map marked with their exact elevations above sea level. They provide precise information about the height of a location, often used in combination with contour lines.



Hachures are short, parallel lines on a map that indicate the steepness and direction of slopes. The closer these lines are, the steeper the slope. They give a sense of the terrain's shape and orientation.



Benchmarks are fixed reference points with known elevations. Surveyors use them to measure heights and as a standard for mapping. They are often found on buildings or other prominent structures.


Boundary Pillars:

Boundary pillars are physical markers that demarcate boundaries, like those between different properties or regions. They help to clearly define the limits of an area.


Trigonometrical Stations:

Trigonometrical stations are elevated points where surveyors use trigonometry to measure distances and angles, which are essential for creating accurate maps and determining the shape of the Earth's surface.


Recommended: Questions and Answers on Methods of representing Relief for SS2 Geography
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