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Conventional signs and symbols I - SS2 Geography Lesson Note

Valleys: On maps, valleys are typically represented as V-shaped lines with contour lines on either side. These lines show the low-lying areas between two higher elevations. The closer these contour lines are, the steeper the valley.


Spur Passes: Spur passes are depicted as small gaps or notches in the contour lines that represent ridges or spurs. These gaps indicate a lower point where one can cross over a ridge or spur. Spur passes are crucial for identifying suitable routes through hilly or mountainous terrain.


Knolls: Knolls are small, rounded hills. They are often shown as circular or oval shapes on maps, with contour lines concentrically encircling them. The elevation of a knoll is usually higher in the center and gradually decreases toward the outer contour lines.


Hills: Hills are typically represented by contour lines that form concentric circles, with each circle indicating a different elevation level. The center of these circles corresponds to the highest point of the hill, and as you move outward, the elevation decreases.

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