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Environmental problems - SS2 Geography Lesson Note

Environmental problems, also known as environmental hazards, are issues that threaten the health and well-being of the natural world and all living creatures, including humans. These problems result from various human activities and natural processes, often causing harm to ecosystems, species, and the overall balance of the environment.



Meaning: Drought is a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall that leads to water scarcity.

Causes: Climate change, over-extraction of groundwater, deforestation, and natural variability.

Effects: Crop failure, water shortages, food and economic crises, and damage to ecosystems.

Solutions: Water conservation, efficient irrigation, and sustainable land use practices.


Desert Encroachment:

Meaning: Desert encroachment is the expansion of arid and desert areas into formerly habitable regions.

Causes: Soil degradation, deforestation, climate change, and poor land management.

Effects: Loss of arable land, displacement of communities, and increased desertification.

Solutions: Reforestation, soil conservation, and sustainable land management.



Meaning: Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances into the environment, such as air, water, and soil.

Causes: Industrial emissions, vehicle exhaust, improper waste disposal, and agricultural runoff.

Effects: Health problems, biodiversity loss, ecosystem damage, and climate change.

Solutions: Improved waste management, stricter environmental regulations, and cleaner technologies.



Meaning: Deforestation is the large-scale removal of forests, primarily for logging and agriculture.

Causes: Logging, agriculture expansion, urban development, and fire.

Effects: Loss of biodiversity, disrupted carbon cycles, and soil erosion.

Solutions: Reforestation, sustainable logging practices, and protected forest areas.


Soil Erosion:

Meaning: Soil erosion is the removal of the topsoil layer from land surfaces.

Causes: Deforestation, improper land use, overgrazing, and intense rainfall.

Effects: Reduced agricultural productivity, sedimentation of water bodies, and land degradation.

Solutions: Terracing, planting cover crops, and practicing sustainable agriculture.

Recommended: Questions and Answers on Environmental Problems (Hazards) for SS2 Geography
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