Courses » SS2 » SS2 Geography » Land Pollution - SS2 Geography Lesson Note

Land Pollution - SS2 Geography Lesson Note

Land pollution, also known as soil pollution, occurs when pollutants are released directly or indirectly into the soil, causing damage to its quality and overall health. Land pollution can have far-reaching consequences. It can reduce soil fertility, harm plant and animal life, affect human health through contaminated food and water, and damage ecosystems.  

There are several types and sources of land pollution:


  • Industrial Pollution: Factories and industrial facilities often release hazardous chemicals and waste into the ground. These substances can contaminate the soil and seep into groundwater, making it unsuitable for agriculture and potentially harmful to humans and wildlife.


  • Agricultural Pollution: The use of pesticides, herbicides, and chemical fertilizers in agriculture can lead to land pollution. These chemicals can accumulate in the soil, affecting soil fertility, and can even find their way into the food chain, posing health risks.


  • Improper Waste Disposal: The improper disposal of solid waste, such as plastics, electronic waste, and household garbage, can lead to land pollution. Landfills and dumpsites may leak harmful substances into the soil and groundwater.


  • Mining Activities: Extractive industries like mining and quarrying can disrupt the land, causing soil erosion and the release of heavy metals and other pollutants into the ground.


  • Deforestation: The removal of forests and vegetation cover can lead to soil erosion, which, in turn, causes land pollution. The exposed soil can be easily carried away by wind and water, leading to the loss of arable land.


  • Urbanization and Construction: Urban development and construction can compact the soil and disrupt its natural composition. It also leads to an increase in impervious surfaces, which can result in the runoff of pollutants into nearby water bodies.


  • Oil and Chemical Spills: Accidental spills of oil and chemicals, either on land or at sea, can have severe consequences for the soil when they seep into the ground, contaminating it.



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