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Migration - SS2 Geography Lesson Note

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.  Migration is a complex and diverse phenomenon, influenced by various factors, including economic, social, political, and environmental conditions. Different types of migration serve different purposes and have unique impacts on both the migrants themselves and the places they move to or leave behind.

It can take many forms, and here are the main types of migration, explained in simple terms:


Internal Migration:

This is when people move within the borders of their own country. For example, moving from a rural village to a city for better job opportunities is internal migration.


International Migration:

International migration involves moving from one country to another. People might do this for various reasons, like finding work, reuniting with family, or seeking safety.



Emigration is when individuals leave their home country to live in another. For instance, someone leaving their home country to start a new life abroad is an emigrant.



Immigration is the opposite of emigration. It's when someone moves into a new country to live there. The person arriving in a new country is an immigrant.


Forced Migration:

This type of migration occurs when people are compelled to leave their homes due to factors like conflict, persecution, or environmental disasters. They don't have a choice but to leave.


Voluntary Migration:

Voluntary migration is when people choose to move for reasons like better job prospects, education, or a desire for a different lifestyle.


Seasonal Migration:

Seasonal migration involves moving to a different place for part of the year and then returning. For example, agricultural workers who move to harvest crops and then return home after the season is over.


Refugee Migration:

Refugees are people who are forced to flee their home country due to fear of persecution, conflict, or violence. They seek safety in another country.


Labor Migration:

Labor migration occurs when individuals move to find work. It can be temporary or long-term, and it's often driven by economic opportunities.


Urbanization Migration:

This is the movement from rural areas to urban cities. People move to cities in search of better living conditions, jobs, and access to services.


Family Reunification Migration:

People may migrate to join family members who have already moved to another place. This is common in many immigration policies.


Brain Drain:

Brain drain refers to the migration of highly skilled or educated individuals from one place to another, often from less developed to more developed countries.

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