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Water Transport - SS2 Geography Lesson Note

Water transport is a mode of transportation that involves the movement of people and goods on water bodies like oceans, seas, rivers, and lakes using various types of vessels, such as ships, boats, and ferries.


Types of Water Transport:

  • Sea Transport: Involves the movement of ships and vessels on oceans and seas, often for long-distance travel and international trade.
  • River Transport: Utilizes boats and barges on rivers and inland waterways for transporting goods and people.
  • Lake Transport: Operates on large lakes using boats, ferries, or ships.


Merits of Water Transport:

  • Cost-Effective: It is one of the most cost-effective ways to transport large quantities of goods over long distances.
  • High Capacity: Ships can carry massive loads, making it efficient for bulk cargo.
  • Environmental Friendly: It generally has a lower carbon footprint compared to other modes of transportation.
  • Safety: Water transport is considered one of the safest modes of transportation.


Demerits of Water Transport:

  • Limited Accessibility: Water transport is restricted to areas with navigable water bodies.
  • Speed: It can be slower than other transportation methods, especially for short distances.
  • Infrastructure Costs: Building and maintaining ports and navigable waterways can be expensive.
  • Weather Dependency: It can be affected by adverse weather conditions, leading to delays.



  • Environmental Impact: Concerns about water pollution, oil spills, and ecosystem disruption.
  • Infrastructure Maintenance: Ensuring ports and waterways are well-maintained is essential.
  • Security: Piracy and security issues can pose risks, especially in certain regions.
  • Regulatory Compliance: Compliance with international and national maritime regulations is critical.



  • Environmental Regulations: Enforce strict environmental regulations to prevent pollution and oil spills.
  • Infrastructure Investment: Continuously invest in port facilities and maintain navigable waterways.
  • Security Measures: Implement security protocols and patrols to counter piracy and other threats.
  • Technological Advancements: Invest in navigation technology and vessel design for improved efficiency and safety.
Recommended: Questions and Answers on Transportation in Nigeria for SS2 Geography
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