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Characteristics and geographical distribution - SS2 Geography Lesson Note

These climatic types and their characteristics are determined by various geographical factors, including latitude, proximity to oceans, and elevation. They play a crucial role in shaping the natural environment and ecosystems in different parts of the world.

Hot Climate:

Characteristics: Hot climates are typically marked by high temperatures, often exceeding 30°C (86°F). They can have little temperature variation throughout the year and are associated with abundant sunshine.

Geographical Distribution: Hot climates are found near the equator, in regions known as the tropics. Examples include the Amazon Rainforest in South America and the Sahara Desert in Africa.


Temperate Climate:

Characteristics: Temperate climates have distinct seasons. Summers are warm, with temperatures between 20°C to 30°C (68°F to 86°F), and winters are cooler, with temperatures ranging from -10°C to 20°C (14°F to 68°F).

Geographical Distribution: These climates are common in the middle latitudes, covering areas like Europe, North America, and parts of Asia.


Cold Climate:

Characteristics: Cold climates are characterized by low temperatures, especially during winter. Winters can be harsh, with temperatures often dropping below freezing, and summers are relatively cool.

Geographical Distribution: Cold climates are found in polar regions (the Arctic and Antarctic) and in subarctic areas like northern Canada and Siberia.


Desert Climate:

Characteristics: Desert climates are hot during the day and can be very cold at night. They receive very little rainfall, often less than 250 millimeters (10 inches) per year.

Geographical Distribution: Deserts are scattered across the globe, with examples including the Sahara Desert in Africa and the Arabian Desert in the Middle East.


Mediterranean Climate:

Characteristics: Mediterranean climates have mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers. Average temperatures range from 10°C to 27°C (50°F to 80°F).

Geographical Distribution: These climates are found along the Mediterranean Sea, in parts of southern Europe, California, and parts of Australia.


Tundra Climate:

Characteristics: Tundra climates are extremely cold and dry. Winters are long and harsh, with temperatures well below freezing, and summers are short with temperatures barely above freezing.

Geographical Distribution: Tundra regions are found in the Arctic and subarctic zones, including northern Canada, Alaska, and Siberia.


Tropical Climate:

Characteristics: Tropical climates are warm and humid throughout the year, with temperatures typically above 20°C (68°F). They often experience heavy rainfall, especially during the wet season.

Geographical Distribution: Tropical regions are near the equator and include places like the Amazon Rainforest in South America and the Congo Basin in Africa.



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