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Flooding - SS2 Geography Lesson Note

Flooding refers to the overflow of water onto normally dry land. It can happen gradually or suddenly and can result from various causes. 



  1. Heavy Rainfall: Excessive and prolonged rainfall can lead to overflowing rivers and water bodies.
  2. Storms and Hurricanes: These weather events can bring intense rainfall and storm surges, causing coastal and inland flooding.
  3. Snowmelt: When snow accumulates and then melts rapidly, it can overwhelm waterways.
  4. Dam or Levee Breaks: The failure of these structures can release large amounts of water.
  5. Urbanization: Paved surfaces in cities can lead to rapid runoff and inadequate drainage.
  6. Deforestation: The removal of trees can reduce the land's ability to absorb water.
  7. Climate Change: Altered weather patterns, increased temperatures, and sea-level rise can exacerbate flooding.



  1. Property Damage: Flooding can lead to the destruction of homes, businesses, and infrastructure.
  2. Loss of Life: It can be life-threatening, causing injuries and fatalities.
  3. Displacement: People may be forced to evacuate their homes and seek shelter.
  4. Economic Impact: Flooding can result in significant financial losses for individuals and governments.
  5. Environmental Damage: It can harm ecosystems, pollute water, and impact wildlife.
  6. Health Risks: Floodwaters may carry contaminants and pose health hazards.



  1. Floodplain Management: Careful planning and zoning to restrict development in flood-prone areas.
  2. Levees and Dams: Building protective structures to control water flow.
  3. Improved Drainage: Upgrading stormwater systems in urban areas to reduce runoff.
  4. Early Warning Systems: Implementing technology for timely flood alerts.
  5. Retrofitting Homes: Elevating structures and using flood-resistant materials.
  6. Afforestation: Planting trees to enhance natural water absorption.
  7. Climate Change Mitigation: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to slow the effects of climate change.
Recommended: Questions and Answers on Environmental Problems (Hazards) II for SS2 Geography
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